Tag Archives: Marialis Cultus

Praying the Rosary better

One of the most powerful and most loved devotions is the Rosary. In this meditation we use St John Paul II’s Apostolic Letter “Rosarium Virginis Mariae”, by which he introduced the Luminous Mysteries in 2002, to come to a deeper understanding of the Rosary so that we can say it better. We consider how:

  • The Rosary unites us with the liturgy
  • The Rosary, in addition to being a Marian prayer, is essentially centred on Christ
  • The Rosary is a contemplative prayer
  • The repetition of Hail Marys is an expression of love
  • Silence has a place in the Rosary
  • The beads have a symbolic meaning
  • The Rosary unites families and gives them peace

Meditation – Love for the Rosary

In 1883, Pope Leo XIII declared October the month of the Rosary. The Holy Rosary is a traditional prayer, going back at least a thousand years. It is a prayer we should say often and well. In this meditation we consider:

  • How the Rosary came to be
  • The recommendation of the Rosary by popes and saints
  • Why the Rosary is such a powerful prayer
  • Why the Rosary is such a rich prayer
  • The importance of the family Rosary
  • How we can say it better

Feast of the divine maternity of Mary

New Year’s day is an important feast day of Our Lady, that of her divine maternity or Mary the Mother of God. The day used to be celebrated as the feast of the Circumcision of Christ. In these two answers to questions I trace the history of the feast. The question on the Divine Maternity is question 264 in my book Question Time 2 and the one on the Circumcision has recently been published in my column in the Catholic Weekly.

264. The feast of Mary, Mother of God

I notice that the feast of Mary, Mother of God, has been moved from October 11 to January 1, when we used to celebrate the feast of the Circumcision of Jesus. When was this done and why?

The feast has a long history, going back many centuries. It commemorates, of course, Mary’s divine motherhood. That is, since Jesus is true God and true man and Mary is his mother, Mary is the mother of God.

Mary’s divine motherhood was defined in the Council of Ephesus in the year 431 against the errors of Nestorius, who was patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to 431. He had taught that in Jesus there were two persons, one divine and the other human, and that Mary was the mother only of the human person and therefore was not the mother of God. This teaching went against the popular belief that Mary was truly theotokos, a Greek word meaning “God-bearer”. Christians had called Mary by this name since at least the third century, the earliest documented usage of the term being in the writings of Origen of Alexandria in the year 230. The Council of Ephesus, in condemning the errors of Nestorius, taught: “If anyone does not confess that the Emmanuel (Christ) in truth is God and that on this account the Holy Virgin is the Mother of God – since according to the flesh she brought forth the Word of God made flesh – let him be anathema” (DS 251).

The exact origin of the liturgical feast of Mary, Mother of God, is unknown but around 500 AD the Eastern Church celebrated a “Day of the Theotokos” around Christmas. Over time the feast came to be celebrated on December 26 in the Byzantine calendar and on January 16 in the Coptic calendar. In the West the Gregorian and Roman calendars of the seventh century gave a strong Marian emphasis to the octave day of Christmas, January 1. With time, the feast of the Circumcision of Jesus came to be celebrated on that day.

It seems that the push for a special feast of Mary’s divine maternity began in Portugal. In 1751 Pope Benedict XIV allowed the Church in that country to commemorate Mary’s divine maternity on the first Sunday of May. The feast was gradually extended to other countries and in 1914 it was celebrated on October 11. It became a feast of the universal Church in 1931 under Pope Pius XI.

After the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI decided to change the feast on January 1 from the Circumcision of Jesus to the commemoration of Mary, Mother of God, in order to reclaim the ancient Marian emphasis on that day. On 2 February 1974, in the Apostolic Exhortation Marialis Cultus he wrote: “The Christmas season is a prolonged commemoration of the divine, virginal and salvific motherhood of her whose inviolate virginity brought the Saviour into the world.” He went on to say: “In the revised ordering of the Christmas period it seems to us that the attention of all should be directed towards the restored Solemnity of Mary the holy Mother of God. This celebration, placed on January 1 in conformity with the ancient indication of the liturgy of the city of Rome, is meant to commemorate the part played by Mary in this mystery of salvation” (MC, 5).

He added: “It is likewise a fitting occasion for renewing adoration of the newborn Prince of Peace, for listening once more to the glad tidings of the angels (cf. Lk 2:14), and for imploring from God, through the Queen of Peace, the supreme gift of peace. It is for this reason that, in the happy concurrence of the Octave of Christmas and the first day of the year, we have instituted the World Day of Peace, an occasion that is gaining increasing support and already bringing forth fruits of peace in the hearts of many” (ibid.).

The feast of the Divine Maternity of Mary is a good occasion to renew our love for our blessed mother, who brought the Son of God into the world, and to honour her as both Mother of God and Queen of Peace.

The circumcision of Christ

As I recall, years ago we celebrated the feast of the circumcision of Christ on New Year’s Day. Now we celebrate on that day the feast of Mary, Mother of God. Can you tell me why we celebrated the circumcision and when and why the change was made?

As you say, on January 1 we used to celebrate the feast of the circumcision of Our Lord. This was an appropriate day for the liturgical celebration of this event because a week after the birth every male Jewish child was circumcised and a name was given him. St Luke describes it: “And at the end of eight days, when he was circumcised, he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb” (Lk 2:21).

The circumcision of Christ has an interesting origin and symbolism. It dates back to the time of Abraham, around 1900 BC. The book of Genesis records that when Abraham was ninety-nine years old, God made a covenant with him, promising to multiply his offspring and to give them the land of Canaan for an everlasting possession. At the same time he changed his name from Abram to Abraham (cf. Gen 17:1-8). God told him: “This is my covenant, which you shall keep, between me and you and your descendants after you: Every male among you shall be circumcised. You shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and you. He that is eight days old among you shall be circumcised… So shall my covenant be in your flesh an everlasting covenant” (Gen 17:10-13).

Ever since, as a sign of the covenant, every male child was circumcised on the eighth day after his birth, and this became the means of incorporation into the people of the covenant, just as Baptism is for Christians today. St Paul himself would boast of having been “circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew born of Hebrews” (Phil 3:5). Circumcision distinguished the Jews from the Gentiles, who were peoples of the uncircumcision.

Our Lord’s circumcision thus manifests that he is truly man, born of a woman into the Jewish nation, whom he had come to redeem. God had chosen his people of the Old Testament to prepare the way for the Incarnation of his Son, who would be their Messiah, their anointed one, who would free them from their sins and establish a new and definitive covenant with them.

Christ’s circumcision also has great symbolic value. It was in his circumcision that he first shed his blood, foreshadowing the piercing of his side by a soldier as he hung on the cross (cf. Jn 19:34). It prefigured the water of Baptism through which Christians enter the new Covenant. St Paul writes: “In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of flesh in the circumcision of Christ; and you were buried with him in baptism” (Col 2:11-12).

When Christ was circumcised, he was given the name Jesus, which the angel had announced both to Joseph (cf. Mt 1:2) and to Mary (cf. Lk 1:31). The name Jesus means saviour and so the angel had told Joseph that the child was to be named Jesus “for he will save his people from their sins” (Mt 1:21).

The feast of the Circumcision was celebrated on the eighth day after Christmas, and therefore on January 1, from the very early centuries. Christmas began to be celebrated on December 25 from at least the fourth century (cf. J. Flader, Question Time 1, Connor Court 2012, q. 141). Since January 1 was the beginning of a new calendar year, the Christian feast had to compete with the pagan festivities celebrated on that day, as it does today. The feast of the Circumcision was celebrated in the Gallican rite from the sixth century and in the Byzantine calendars in the eighth and ninth centuries. The Octave of Christmas was celebrated at the same time, especially in Rome from the seventh century.

Even though the feast was of the Circumcision, the texts of the Mass and Divine Office came to include many references to Our Lady. Until 1960 the Roman calendar celebrated on January 1 the Circumcision and the Octave of the Nativity. In the revised calendar of 1960 January 1 was called simply the Octave of the Nativity. Finally, in the Roman calendar of 1969 the feast became the Solemnity of Mary, the Mother of God, but is also referred to as the Octave of the Nativity. It is fitting that we celebrate Mary’s divine maternity on the octave of Christmas, when we celebrate the birth of the Son of God. The feast of the Holy Name of Jesus is celebrated on January 3.

The family Rosary

Saying the Rosary in the family is a great blessing but it is not always easy to do. This answer to a question on the family Rosary is from my book Question Time 1.

133. The family Rosary

When I was a child we prayed the Rosary every night after dinner in our family. Now that I am married I have occasionally tried to introduce the custom but my teenage children always seem to be out or wanting to study or watch television. I find that my friends have the same problem and we tend to give up trying. Is the family Rosary still encouraged by the Church or is it now regarded as outdated and no longer relevant? Is there any way to keep it alive?

You ask a very important question and I am sure there are many others who ask it. The Rosary is not something outdated. It has been part of the life of the Church for over 1000 years and many are the Popes who have blessed it and encouraged its use. Our Lady herself encouraged the praying of the Rosary at both Lourdes and Fatima, so it will never be outdated.

After all, in the Rosary we meditate on the life of Christ from his infancy, through his public life, to his passion, death and Resurrection. That practice will never go out of fashion, any more than will reading the Scriptures. Moreover, in the Rosary we honour Our Lady, telling her 50 times: “Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou among women…” Love for our heavenly Mother will never go out of fashion, any more than will love for our earthly mother.

Any prayers that are encouraged for individuals are especially encouraged for families, since prayer binds the family together. In these times, when there are so many pressures pulling families apart, family prayer takes on ever greater urgency.

Recent Popes have strongly encouraged the family Rosary. In 1974 Pope Paul VI wrote in his Apostolic Exhortation Marialis Cultus: “The Rosary should be considered as one of the best and most efficacious prayers in common that the Christian family is invited to recite. We like to think, and sincerely hope, that when the family gathering becomes a time of prayer the Rosary is a frequent and favoured manner of praying. We are well aware that the changed conditions of life today do not make family gatherings easy, and that even when such a gathering is possible many circumstances make it difficult to turn it into an occasion of prayer. There is no doubt of the difficulty. But it is characteristic of the Christian in his manner of life not to give in to circumstances but to overcome them, not to succumb but to make an effort” (n. 54).

More recently, in 2002 Pope John Paul II encouraged the family Rosary in his Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae: “As a prayer for peace, the Rosary is also, and always has been, a prayer of and for the family. At one time this prayer was particularly dear to Christian families, and it certainly brought them closer together. It is important not to lose this precious inheritance. We need to return to the practice of family prayer and prayer for families, continuing to use the Rosary” (n. 41).

He went on to say: “The family that prays together stays together. The Holy Rosary, by age-old tradition, has shown itself particularly effective as a prayer which brings the family together… Many of the problems facing contemporary families, especially in economically developed societies, result from their increasing difficulty in communicating. Families seldom manage to come together, and the rare occasions when they do are often taken up with watching television. To return to the recitation of the family Rosary means filling daily life with very different images, images of the mystery of salvation: the image of the Redeemer, the image of his most Blessed Mother. The family that recites the Rosary together reproduces something of the atmosphere of the household of Nazareth: its members place Jesus at the centre, they share his joys and sorrows, they place their needs and their plans in his hands, they draw from him the hope and the strength to go on” (n. 41).

In summary, it is a matter of not giving up. The family Rosary will be of great benefit, even if only a few are there to pray it together. The children should always be left free, and they may be invited to pray only a decade. On certain occasions – a serious illness, a death, a crisis – they can all be encouraged to pray together. It will do everyone much good. And we should not forget that a plenary indulgence is granted whenever the Rosary is prayed in the family.